松露法語Truffe)是一種類的總稱,分類為子囊菌門西洋松露科西洋松露屬,大約有10種不同的品種。松露多數在闊葉樹的根部著絲生長,散佈於樹底120~150公分方圓,塊狀主體藏於地下5~40公分。

黑松露白松露
黑松露剖面白松露剖面
黑松露(左)與白松露(右)

松露本身吃起來並無特別的味道,但因為散發著特殊的氣味,自古便有許多人為之著迷。1825年法國著名美食家布里亞-薩瓦蘭Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin)在其著作《味覺生理學》(Physiologie du Goût)中便盛讚松露為「廚房的鑽石」。歐洲人將松露與魚子醬鵝肝並列「世界三大珍饈」,屬於高貴食材之一,特別是法國產的黑松露(Tuber melanosporum Vitt.)與義大利產的白松露(Tuber magnatum Pico)評價最高。

天然松露的採集並不容易,傳統上是利用的靈敏嗅覺來尋找及挖掘松露。特別是母豬最為敏感,是天生的松露獵人,據說這是因為松露的氣味與誘發母豬性衝動費洛蒙類似。不過也由於母豬非常喜歡松露,所以常直接將找到的松露吃下,不易為採集人所控制,因此後來便訓練專門的松露獵犬來彌補此一缺點。

雖然西洋松露屬有多種不同的品種,但並不是每一種都適宜作美食的。例如外號「豬拱菌」的中國松露就被食家認為「味同橡膠」,有時還被用來冒充其他品種的松露而被販賣。



( Above info fomr Wikipedia)



Black truffle

Black Périgord Truffle
Black Périgord Truffle

The Black truffle or Black Périgord Truffle (Tuber melanosporum) is named for the Périgord region in France and grows exclusively with oak. Specimens can be found in late autumn and winter, reaching 7cm in diameter and weighing 100g though usually weigh less.[3] Production is almost exclusively European, with France accounting for 45%, Spain 35%, Italy 20%, and small amounts from Slovenia and Croatia. In 1900, France produced around 1,000 metric tonnes (1,100 short tons) of Tuber melanosporum. Production has considerably diminished in the past century, and is presently around 20 metric tonnes (22 short tons) per year, with peaks at 46 metric tonnes (50 short tons) in the best years. 80% of the French production comes from southeast France: upper-Provence (départements of Vaucluse and Alpes-de-Haute-Provence), part of Dauphiné (département of Drôme), and part of Languedoc (département of Gard); 20% of the production comes from southwest France: Quercy (département of Lot) and Périgord. The largest truffle market in France (and probably also in the world) is at Richerenches in Vaucluse. The largest truffle market in southwest France is at Lalbenque in Quercy. These markets are busiest in the month of January when the black truffles have their highest perfume. Black truffles on these markets sell between 200 and 600 per kilogram ($280–$840 per pound), depending on the quantity and quality of the harvest.


White truffle

White truffle washed and cut
White truffle washed and cut

The White truffle or Alba Truffle (Tuber magnatum) comes from the Langhe area of the Piedmont region in northern Italy and, most famously, in the countryside around the city of Alba. It is also found in Croatia, on the Istria peninsula in the Motovun forest alongside Mirna river [1]. Growing symbiotically with oak, hazel, poplar and beech and fruiting in autumn, they can reach 12cm diameter and 500g, though are usually much smaller. The flesh is pale cream or brown with white marbling.[3] Like the French black truffles, Italian white truffles are very highly esteemed (illustration, right). The white truffle market in Alba is busiest in the months of October and November. The Tuber magnatum truffles sell between 200€ and 400€ per hectogram ($1000 - $2000 per pound). In 2007, due to devaluations of the dollar, white truffles were selling at $3000 - $4000 per pound. They produce a scent that mimics a male pig sex hormone, and for this reason, female pigs have been used historically in Europe to help find truffles. However, more recently, dogs have become preferred for truffle hunting since they can be trained to just find the truffles whereas sows eat the truffles as soon as they find them.

The Tuber magnatum pico White truffle is mostly found in northern and central Italy, while the Tuber borchi, or Whitish truffle, is found in Tuscany, Romagna and the Marche. Neither of these is as aromatic as those from Piedmont.[3]

Extraction

Looking for truffles in open ground is almost always carried out with specially trained pigs (truffle hogs) or, more recently, dogs. Pigs were the most used in the past, but nowadays dogs are preferred.

Truffle HogTruffle Dog
Keen sense of smellKeen sense of smell
Innate ability to sniff out trufflesMust be trained
Tendency to eat truffles once foundEasier to control; probably will not eat truffles

The female pig's natural truffle radar as well as her usual intent to eat the truffle is due to a compound within the truffle similar to androstenol, the sex pheromone of boar saliva, to which the sow is keenly attracted. It may have been the strange attraction that pigs have to these fungi which prompted its discovery by early human populations.


Culinary use

Because of their high price and their pungent taste, truffles are used sparingly. Supplies can be found commercially as unadulterated fresh produce or preserved, typically in a light brine.

White truffles are generally served uncooked and shaved over steaming buttered pasta or salads. White or black paper-thin truffle slices may be inserted into meats, under the skins of roasted fowl, in foie gras preparations, in pâtés, or in stuffings. Some specialty cheeses contain truffles as well.

The flavor of black truffles is far less pungent and more refined than that of white truffles. It is reminiscent of fresh earth and mushrooms, and when fresh, their scent fills a room almost instantly. In 2006, designer Tom Ford released a perfume that lists black truffle as its first note.[6]

Truffle oil is often used as a lower-cost substitute for truffles to provide flavoring, or to enhance the flavor and aroma of truffles in cooking. However, most truffle oil is a synthetic product that contains no actual truffles.[7]

Pricing
 

As truffles are considered a delicacy, they command high prices. The world's most expensive truffle was a 1.51
kilogram rare White Alba truffle. It was sold for 125,000 Euros (Hong Kong Dollar $1,250,000; US $160,000) on 13 November 2006 to Hong Kong property tycoon Sir Gordon Wu [2]. This price beat the 2005 world record of 95,000 Euros for a 1.21 kilogram White Alba truffle. The 2006 auction took place at the Castle of Grinzane Cavour in Italy, with three auction houses taking part (via satellite link): Castle of Grinzane, Hong Kong, and Paris.


( above English info formWikipedia)

PS. 法國松露的介紹


挖到寶! 1.5公斤白松露出土

 更新日期:2007/11/28 11:09

義大利一名農夫上週末,挖到了一顆重達一點五公斤的白松露,打破了先前一點三公斤的世界記錄,成為最新一代的松露王,這顆松露即將在澳門進行慈善拍賣,預估可喊到超過台幣七百萬的天價。端出高級軟墊,打上燈光,這顆白松露如同稀世珠寶般展示在眾人眼前,一點五公斤的重量,是五十年來全球最大,一名義大利農夫上週末帶著狗在托斯卡尼鄉間尋找松露,結果驚喜挖到這個寶。今年義大利因為乾旱造成松露欠收,現在挖出這顆巨無霸更是身價非凡,不過這對父子並無意趁機撈錢,而是決定捐出來做慈善拍賣,這顆白松露在羅馬這家五星級飯店展示一晚後,就將送往澳門在這個週末進行拍賣,目前預估可賣出超過十五萬歐元的高價,約合台幣七百一十八萬,原本拍賣單位還希望在送出國前,能先找教宗為這顆松露祝福,不過由於松露出土後最好要在二十天內吃掉,礙於時雁制只好作罷。香港兩個星期前也曾舉行一場白松露拍賣會,一顆重七百五十公克的白松露之后,以約台幣六百七十三萬的天價賣出,創下新的世界記錄。(民視新聞綜合報導)

 

( above news from Yahoo)

 

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